-ism: a distinctive practice, system or philosophy, typically a political ideology or an artistic movement formed in the 19th and/or 20th centuries. e.g.
Socialism—Stresses the equality of all people, and the need to assist all in order to level the playing field. Socialism could be Christian or Romantic in its impetus, or scientific and revolutionary, as in the Marxian version.
Marxism—The doctrines of Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels on economics, politics, and society. They include the notion of economic determinism—that political and social structures are determined by the economic conditions of people. Marxism calls for a classless society where means of production are commonly owned (communism), a system to be reached as the inevitable result of the struggle between the leaders of capitalism and the workers.
Darwinism—A theory first proposed in the nineteenth century by Charles Darwin, according to which the Earth’s species have changed and diversified through time under the influence of natural selection. Life on earth is thought to have evolved in three stages. First came chemical evolution, in which organic molecules were formed. This was followed by the development of single cells capable of reproducing themselves. This stage led to the development of complex organisms capable of sexual reproduction. Scientists generally accept evolution as fact today, although debates continue over the precise mechanisms involved in the process.
Pragmatism—An approach to philosophy, primarily held by American philosophers in the late 19th century, which asserts that the truth or meaning of a statement is to be measured by its practical (i.e., pragmatic) consequences. (Another way of defining pragmatism is to say, “A theory is good if it works.”) Psychologist William James and educator John Dewey were pragmatists.
Realism—Values a truthful representation of life “as it is” in literature, including that which is low, vile, sordid, disgusting, and evil. The personality of the author was supposed to recede into the background. (Primarily found in 19th-century French literature and was anti-Romantic.)
Naturalism—Similar to Realism, but with greater emphasis on analogies to science, especially to the influence of scientific materialism and determinism with a stress on heredity and environment. It is primarily secular. Aimed at accuracy and objectivity, and cultivated realistic and even sordid portrayals of people and their environment. As a literary movement, it was primarily found in 19th-century French literature and was anti-Romantic. Philosophical naturalism, which is often identified with materialism, holds that minds, spirits, and ideas are fundamentally material.
Symbolism—As a philosophical and artistic movement, this is usually called the “Symbolist Movement,” and went beyond just using one thing to suggest another. It manipulated language to evoke hidden meanings behind the appearances of the world, suggesting other levels of reality that could not be reached directly. (French Symbolists valued the works of Edgar Allan Poe especially.) They used synaesthesia, fusing all sense experience. The movement was firmly based on images that mean more than just the things pictured. This movement influenced W. B. Yeats, T. S. Eliot, Wallace Stevens, and many other writers.
Impressionism—Calls for the impression of an artist’s observation, rather than the direct photographic representation of it.
Expressionism—Refuses the direct representation of reality, or even the impression of it, in favor of expressing one’s inner vision, emotion, or spiritual reality.
Futurism—In the 1940s, this represented an enthusiasm for the dynamism of the machine age and the beautiful possibilities of an ever brighter technological future. Since the 1980s, the term has been applied to anything which seeks to support a sustainable future for the planet as well as its people.
Dadaism—”Dada” is a nonsense word that reflects the disgust Dadaists felt for middle class values, such as morality, religion, patriotism, and rationalism. Dadaists set out to break all rules with attacks on the mind and emotions, in order to free the mind from conventional perspectives and thereby to reform society.
Surrealism—Echoed Dadaism in its desire to free the mind from convention and open it to new possibilities. Surrealists experiment with ways of liberating the unconscious imagination and thereby reaching a sublime state they called the “marvelous.” Examples include dream-writing, automatic writing, riddle games, collage, and startling images yoking unrelated elements, thereby suggesting buried connections and possible relationships unexamined by the conscious mind. (A Surrealist joke goes this way: Question: How many Surrealists does it take to change a light bulb? Answer: Two: One to hold the giraffe, and the other to fill the bathtub with brightly colored machine tools.)
Modernism—A term used at the beginning of the 20th century for the change in attitudes that embraced all the elements of Expressionism, Futurism, Dadaism, and Surrealism.
Nazism—A system of political philosophy developed by Adolph Hitler in Germany that demanded absolute devotion to the German government and that opposed communism, capitalism, and free intellectual inquiry, and attempted to establish a “master race” of people of “pure” descent that would rule the world. The Nazis exterminated Jews, gypsies, Slavs, communists, homosexuals, Christians who resisted the government, and defenders of intellectual freedom. However, such Fascism takes many other forms.
Existentialism—A movement primarily in 20th-century literature and philosophy, with some forerunners in earlier centuries. Existentialism stresses that people are entirely free and therefore responsible for what they make of themselves. With this responsibility comes a profound anguish or dread. Soren Kierkegaard and Feodor Dostoevsky in the 19th century, and Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger, and Albert Camus in the 20th century were existentialist writers.
Feminism—The doctrine and political movement that states women should have the same economic, social, and political rights as men. Though Feminist writers and artists have existed in all time frames, in an effort to liberate all women and allow them free choice of personal action, this movement really became a force in the 1960s.
Globalism—The idea that the world has become interdependent as a result of advances in communications and economic interchanges. At its best, globalism embraces multi-culturalism and diversity while striving for unity in approaching solutions to world problems.
In further blogs on this theme we’ll look at musical isms, including those above, but also: Nationalism, Primitivism, Neo-Classicism, Minimalism, Total Serialism and Aleatoricism.
An interesting blog by Peter Gardner, about Ellington’s ill-fated tour … . To put this in context, the UK was being threatened with petrol rationing, and the pop charts were dominated by Gary Glitter, The Osmonds, David Cassidy, The Carpenters and David Bowie.
If you work with LiveCode and would like a copy of this app in development, please contact me.
It’s 70 years since John Cage completed his collection of Sonatas and Interludes for prepared piano. 1948, the year that Mahatma Gandhi was murdered, the United Nations created the Jewish state of Israel in Palestine, as well as adopting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the Treaty of Brussels was signed, which led to the EU; all of which have come back to haunt and taunt us.
I met John Cage in 1980. Got drunk with him and Merce Cunningham in Soho. I’ve used prepared piano samples in several compositions over the years, but waited until now to compose something for prepared piano performance. This and the following pieces represent fond remembrance filtered through the rejection of Modernism. My thanks to Marabi O’Hare for joining me in performing these recordings, at night in a small country church in the West Country. A quiet place that we shall keep secret.
More in this set to come …
Here are some useful resources for developing your extemporisation and improvisation skills …
Video and music by my old rival Marabi O’Hare … more feral than viral … nice liquorice stick …
London is the Place for Me 2: Calypso & Kwela, Highlife & Jazz from Young Black London in the 1950s and early 60s (Honest Jons Records)
Jazz by Henri Matisse is a set of 20 colour stencils and more than 70 pages of calligraphic writing. Jazz was pivotal in Matisse’s transition from oil painting to the cut-out collages that dominated the last decade of his life. To create these works, Matisse cut forms out of large sheets of paper previously painted with gouache by his assistants. The cut-outs were then assembled on the wall of Matisse’s studio, under his direction.
Jazz was published by Tériade in an edition of 250. The book’s title evokes the idea of a musical structure of rhythm and repetition, expressed through the handwritten text, which is broken by the explosive improvisations of the colour plates. Matisse’s subjects are taken largely from the circus, mythology and memories of his travels. They represent either isolated figures or paired forms that suggest a dialogue between artist and model. Despite the vivid colours and folkloric themes, few of the plates are actually cheerful. Several are among Matisse’s most ominous images.
The writing of Jazz was very important for Matisse and though the pictures were mostly finished by 1944, he continued to work on the text until shortly before the book was published in September 1947. While the text gives the impression of great spontaneity, it was written out four or five times until Matisse was satisfied with the manner of expression and size of handwriting.
Matisse stated that his manuscript pages represent merely a visual accompaniment to the plates and ‘their role [was] thus purely spectacular’. Despite Matisse’s claim, the text and plates are actually subtly and consciously related. The underlying themes of art and artifice find many parallels in the text.
Jazz represents one of Matisse’s most interesting statements about his artistic development and the act of creation, which he believed results from the synthesis of instinct and intellect guided by discipline.
If Jazz, and the cutouts in general, approach the liberated abstraction of music, still Matisse never strays far from the sense of an objective world. Painter and art historian Sir Lawrence Gowing described the cutouts as ‘cutting into a primordial substance, the basic chromatic substance of painting… . With each stroke, the cutting revealed the character both of the material, the pristine substance of color, and also of an image, a subject.’
In Jazz, Matisse’s subjects are more like verbs than nouns, however. They express the feeling of leaping, flying, swimming, falling. They cut straight to the viewer’s experience rather than merely depicting someone else’s.
I The Clown
II The Circus
III Monsieur Loyal
IV The Nightmare of the White Elephant
V The Horse, the Rider and Clown
VI The Wolf
VII The Heart
X Pierrot’s Funeral
XI The Codomas
XII The Swimmer in the Tank
XIII The Sword Swallower
XIV The Cowboy
XV The Knife Thrower
XVII Lagoon I
XVIII Lagoon II
XIX Lagoon III